Manifesto of the Communist Party

Since that time the Nationalists (Republic of China - ROC) and the Communists (People’s Republic of - PRC) have faced off; threatening, cajoling and occasionally opening fire on each other. The small islands of Matsu and (Kinmen), the sole territory under the jurisdiction of the Republic of China, have played a part in all the bluffing and psychological operations. In particular, starting about 1954 the two sides sent leaflets to each other on alternate days by balloon and artillery. In this article we will look at some of the leaflets prepared by the Nationalist Government and sent into mainland up until about 1979 when the and the People’s Republic of normalized relations.

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[v] Karl Marx, “The Communist Manifesto,” The Avalon Project of Yale Law School,

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The third leaflet depicts the flag of nationalist and the text: Bookmarks As mentioned in several quotes above, the Nationalist Chinese regularly sent various gifts and trinkets to mainland by balloon. We depict one of their propaganda bookmarks above. A bookmark is a strip or band of some material, such as paper, leather or ribbon, put between the pages of a book to mark a place. Psychological operators have used it on numerous occasions to carry their propaganda messages because the bookmarks tend to be saved and placed in a book and every time the reader opens the book the message is the first thing that is seen. PSYOP Bookmarks have been used in , and by the Nationalist Chinese on . The text is: Other bookmarks were all text and had messages such as:

Bookmark to Chinese Communist Pilots One green bookmark has the symbol of the Chinese Air Force at top center and the text:
We know this bookmark was printed about 1961 because what the Nationalists did not tell their Communist brothers was that on 12 January 1960 Wang Wenping, flying a MiG-15 Fagot (0651), attempted to defect from the People's Republic of , but the aircraft exploded on landing at Ilan, .

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There were a great number of informative propaganda booklets sent from to the People’s Republic of . Some are highly illustrated with patriotic themes, some explain sabotage techniques, and some just have text. The 15-page booklet above depicts Wu Shutong on the cover and is an abbreviated version of his speech given in . Wu was a communist activist in Hong Kong who visited the Mainland numerous times between 1950 and 1966, and was given a role in various Mainland organizations, but defected to during the Cultural Revolution. He paints a dismal picture of the oppression of intellectuals and the Party's role in fomenting riots in .


Nationalist and Communist Chinese Propaganda Leaflets

The character translated as “themselves” above can also mean “private” so the line has a double-meaning in this context. It not only criticizes the Communist big-names for being selfish, but also for being hypocritical, since they were the one who preached against private ownership and thoughts. The leaflet was obviously an attack on how the PRC political circle was monopolized by families. Ye Qun and Jiang Qing were Lin Biao and Mao's wives, respectively. The little girl might be Li Na, the daughter of Mao and Jiang. The depiction of Lin's son, Lin Liguo, as an infant was rather incorrect as he was the No. 2 figure in the Red Chinese Air Force by 1971. The Chinese government, to this day, believes that he planned to assassinate Mao with his father's blessing in 1971. The plan was exposed, leading to him and his family's death during the unsuccessful flight to the USSR.

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Many of the leaflets that encouraged red Chinese pilots to defect to Taiwan had maps giving them course and distance to fly because the Chinese Communists had removed the Island of Taiwan from the maps that they were given for security reasons. These leaflets were very successful. At the Republic of China Air Force Museum at Ching Chuan on Taiwan there are five MiGs and an Aisle 28 Beetle Bomber on display, all of which defected from the mainland to Taiwan in this period.

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A second leaflet in the bundle depicts a Chinese soldier studiously writing. On the back of the leaflet there are three photographs of the same man as he talks to a factory worker, converses with fellow soldiers, and meets with old friends. The propaganda text explains that the most common laborer can do well under Communism. This propaganda text is rather long so I will just translate the first few paragraphs:

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On a two-way shooting range, I’m inclined to hit them out at 500.”“Fred’s Plan to Save America,” an early photocopied manifesto, sets forth a doctrine of deterrence.