Getting treatment for alcoholism and ..

There are two major varieties of gallstones: those composed primarily of cholesterol and those composed of heme pigments. Approximately 80% of the gallstones found in the U.S. population are composed of cholesterol. Therefore, the following discussion is limited to those. The prevalence of cholelithiasis in adults in industrialized countries, including the United States, is about 10%; the prevalence among women is about twice that among men (Strom and West, 1985). The prevalence of cholelithiasis is much higher in populations with American Indian ancestry, reaching up to 65% in some American Indian groups (Hesse, 1959). Cholelithiasis and associated cholecystitis are not frequent causes of death, but they are frequent causes of hospital admission and surgical intervention.

, so obesity and alcoholism count as diseases.

Other examples of diseases and conditions that can cause Raynaud's include:

Diet and Health: Implications for Reducing Chronic Disease Risk

Naturalists tend towards conceptual conservatism. They typicallyappeal to our intuitions about illness as support for their ownemphasis on underlying bodily malfunction. This assumes that ourcurrent concept is in good shape, that common sense and medicineshare a concept of disease, and that medicine should respect layintuitions about what is or is not a disease. Like manyphilosophers who think about other concepts with both scientific andcommon sense uses, conservative naturalists about disease think thatfolk concepts specify what counts as health and disease. The job ofmedicine is to look at the world and see if anything in nature fallsunder the concept as revealed by analysis (cf the “Canberraplan” of Jackson 1998) For revisionists, this understanding ofcommon sense's in its relation to science is needlessly submissive to folkintuitions.

Digestive system diseases - Des Moines University

Modern medicine looks naturalistic about disease. One question, then, concerns theextent to which common sense and biomedical concepts arerelated. Perhaps both have naturalist commitments, or perhaps commonsense is driven by values and medicine is not, or perhaps physiciansare really constructivists who are self-deceived or arguing in badfaith.

Your doctor also may do a more complete physical exam to check for signs of diseases and conditions that are linked to secondary Raynaud's.

Revisionist naturalists argue that facts about physiological andpsychological functioning, like other biological facts, obtainindependently of human conceptions of the world. Our intuitions mighttell us that a condition is not a disease. But scientific inquirymight conclude that people with the condition are really sufferingfrom a biological malfunction. In that case, a conservative wouldrecommend finessing the analysis to ensure that the concept of diseasedoes not cover this case. A revisionist would say that we must bitethe bullet and judge that this case falls under the concept even ifthat judgment is counterintuitive. A revisionist naturalist regardshealth and disease as features of the world to be discovered bybiomedical investigation, and therefore loosely constrained, at best,by our everyday concepts of health and disease. Lemoine (2013) arguesthat conceptual analysis always involves a stipulative elementconcerning controversial or borderline cases. Because contendingparties will be led by their intuitions to see different stipulationsas reasonable, conceptual analysis will be very unlikely to decidebetween competing analyses that are all reasonably successful atcapturing core cases. He suggests that instead philosophers should aimto naturalize disease by trying to first understand general featuresof theories in the medical sciences and then looking for perspicuousand coherent accounts of different disease types, with a view toeventually establishing an overall picture of the role diseasethinking plays in medicine. This approach treats diseases as putativenatural kinds and could be highly revisionist, while also leaving openthe possibility that some diagnoses represent contingent historicaloutcomes that have left us with an incoherent category. Lange (2007)starts his account of disease from a similar impulse, insisting thatdiseases play an absolutely essential role in explaining a patient'ssymptoms. He argues that this explanatory role is characteristic ofnatural kinds elsewhere in science, and warrants thinking of diseasesas natural kinds. Lange views diseases as natural kinds ofincapacities.

If your doctor sees abnormal arteries, it may mean you have a disease linked to Raynaud's, such as scleroderma.

Furthermore, the concept of disease that is currently employed in mostareas of medicine has undergone a process of development. For much ofthe modern era there has been a dialectic between two concepts ofdisease. On the one hand, there has been the idea that a disease isjust an observable suite of symptoms with a predictable courseunfolding. This notion dates back to Sydenham in the late seventeenthcentury. Kraepelin applied it to psychiatry as the basis fordifferential diagnosis, for example between hebephrenia and dementiapraecox (schizophrenia) (1899, 173–175). The approach was supplantedas medicine matured by the concept of diseases as destructiveprocesses in bodily organs which “divert part of the substanceof the individual from the actions which are natural to the species toanother kind of action” (Snow 1853, 155; for discussion seeWhitbeck 1977, Carter 2003, Broome 2006). This is perhaps still thecore medical conception of disease. It seeks explanations that cite pathological processesin bodily systems. More recent medicine has tended to weaken thisslightly by adopting what Green (2007, ch, 2) calls an‘actuarial’ model of disease. This model takes thepresence of elevated risk, for example as indicated by high bloodpressure, to be a disease even in the absence of overt symptoms or aclearly destructive pathological process.

"What treatment is available for my kidney disease? What are the expectations?"

Major efforts are under way at the national level to control the abuse of alcoholic beverages (NIAAA, 1987). Efforts to develop effective educational and treatment regimens for alcohol dependence should be continued. Research aimed at discovering the genetic basis of alcohol dependence is needed for designing more effective alcoholism prevention strategies.