Sep 23, 2016 · (Dred) Scott v
393 (1857), was a landmark decision by the U.S
This unreasonably harsh punishment inspired a campaign led by William Lovett and the Tolpuddle Martyrs were pardoned and allowed back into Britain.
Government and developing political organisation after 1846
Wanted the Corn Laws to be put back into place
Against Free Trade
Supporters of Peel
Split between Conservatives and Whigs
Came from wealthy industrial and commercial backgrounds
Powerful aristocratic landowning families
Were in favour of further extension of the franchise
Generally supportive of Nonconformists and some Roman Catholic peers
Some Junior Whigs started to call themselves Liberals
Most Liberals were from middle class commercial backgrounds/lawyers, professionals.
Believed in individual liberty, Free Trade, freedom of the press and religious freedom.
Free-thinking middle class individuals
Adopted the Benthamite doctrine of Utilitarianism.
Wanted to change the social order, opposed the political and economic dominance of the landowning classes and the priviledged position of the Church of England.
Wanted an extension of the franchise, removal of government restrictions and Free Trade.
Wanted more concessions for the Irish
Would support any Party that was willing to work with Irish issues and grant them concessions
The Monarch's rights in 1867:
"The right to be consulted, the right to be encouraged and the right to warn."
The 1832 Reform Act had weakened the powers of the Monarch politically because the concept of a representative government had made the political system more democratic.
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FeesSee Tuition fees.Financial memorandumThe financial memorandum was the agreement between HEFCE and the institutions it funds that sets out the terms and conditions for payment of HEFCE grants. It was superseded in August 2014 by the Memorandum of Assurance and Accountability.Financial sustainabilityThe arrangements for ensuring and demonstrating the long term financial viability of universities and colleges.Foundation degreeFoundation degrees are two-year higher education qualifications that were first offered in 2001-02. They are designed to meet skills shortages at the higher technician and associate professional levels. Foundation degrees are one level below the honours degree.FranchiseA franchise is an agreement by a lead HE provider (usually a degree awarding body) that another provider may deliver all or part of a programme approved and owned by the lead provider. The lead provider normally retains overall control of the programme's content, delivery, assessment and quality assurance arrangements, and has overall responsibility for the provision. Some franchise arrangements may also meet the definition of .FTEFull-time equivalent or full-time equivalence, depending on context. For comparison and funding purposes, numbers of sandwich year-out and part-time students and staff are converted to full-time equivalents. This is because a direct headcount is often a poor indication of the actual volume of activity.Full economic costThe full economic cost of an activity incorporates all direct and indirect costs, including all cost adjustments required under the Transparent Approach to Costing (TRAC) methodology.Full-person equivalent (FPE)In order to accurately measure HE provision where students are taught at more than one institution or are studying more than one subject, we split head-counts across the institutions/subjects involved in proportion to the activity in each – this results in counts of full-person equivalents or FPEs. This gives a more accurate measure than direct headcounts, where the student would have to be arbitrarily assigned to one of the teaching institutions or one of the subjects.Funding agreementThe annual funding agreement between HEFCE and the institutions it funds sets out the recurrent grant allocated for the year, the circumstances under which that grant may be adjusted, and particular terms and conditions associated with it. These include, for example, any requirements relating to student numbers and to comply with regulated tuition fee limits and access agreements. For publicly funded higher education institutions, the funding agreement is part two of the Memorandum of Assurance and Accountability.Funding councilFunding councils for higher education are non-departmental public statutory bodies that provide government funding for teaching, research, knowledge exchange and related activities.The Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE), the Scottish Funding Council (SFC), and the Higher Education Funding Council for Wales (HEFCW) comprise the funding councils for higher education in the UK. There is no funding council for Northern Ireland, where HEIs are funded directly by the Department of the Economy, Northern Ireland (DFE (NI)).Further and Higher Education Act 1992 (1992 Act)The Further and Higher Education Act 1992 gives HEFCE the statutory duty of distributing funding for teaching, research and related activities to higher education institutions, and for prescribed higher education courses to further education colleges; to secure arrangements for assessing the quality of education in institutions we fund; and to provide advice to the Secretary of State.Further educationFurther education is for people over compulsory school age (currently 16 in England) which does not take place in a secondary school. Further education courses are generally up to the standard of GCE A-level or NVQ Level 3.Further education corporationFurther education corporations are created by Parliamentary statute, under the powers of the Further and Higher Education Act 1992. Most of them are general further education colleges or sixth-form colleges. The Association of Colleges publishes a list of these bodies. Most further education corporations in England receive funding from HEFCE because they are providing prescribed courses of higher education. Further education corporations may also apply to the Privy Council to gain foundation degree awarding powers in their own right, although that is quite rare.